The 14th Amendment does not cover private actors or individuals. It only prevents state actors from discriminating. Non-discrimination laws covering employers and businesses are actually passed under Congress's Commerce Clause powers, not its 14th Amendment powers.
In a civil suit for battery (i.e. the victim suing you for money, rather than the government trying to throw you in jail), the standard is "preponderance of the evidence", not "beyond a reasonable doubt".
You don't have a constitutional right to jury trials for "petty" offenses. Baldwin v. New York, 399 U.S. 66 (1970).
The First Amendment only prevents Congress (and via the 14th Amendment, the states) from limiting freedom of speech. Facebook can ban you for being an ass just fine.